Longer term euro interest rates have moved higher over the past few weeks as the market starts to adjust to what it perceives as an imminent change in monetary policy from the ECB. 10-year German bond yields are trading at over 0.5%, which is still extraordinarly low but compares with a yield of only 0.25% at end-June, so the speed of the move has surprised. A ‘reflation’ reference by Draghi was the initial catalyst ( although later played down by the ECB) and the pace of economic activity has certainly picked up this year but the problem for the hawks in the Governing Council is that inflation remains stubbornly below target (1.3% in June), with the core rate still remarkably low (1.1%).
GDP in the Euro area (EA) grew by 0.6% in the first quarter and strong survey readings (the IFO in Germany is currently at a record high) imply a similar if not stronger figure for q2. On that basis it now seems likely that annual growth in the EA may emerge at 2.1% or 2.2% this year and hence above the 1.9% projected in the June ECB staff forecast. There have only been two previous tightening cycles by the Bank, and the IFO is currently well above the level that has previously triggered higher rates, but , to date, the pick up in economic activity has not put any material upward pressure on prices.
The persistence of low inflation , not just in the EA but across other developed economies, notably the US, has prompted a lot of analysis.What is striking is the behaviour of wages, as they have not responded to tightening labour markets in the expected way. That relationship is generally known as the Phillips curve, and the evidence shows that the curve is now much flatter than in the past i.e. a given fall in unemployment has very little impact on wages. So, for example, EA unemployment has fallen from 12.1% to the current 9.3% but wage inflation in q1 was only 1.4% and averaged 1.5% in 2016.
A range of factors have been put forward for this limp growth is wages; low price inflation, the decline of trade unions, globalisation, the growth of self employment and changes in the structure of the jobs market. Many of these factors are structural and if so, the acceleration in wage inflation expected by the ECB over the next few years may not materialise, despite stronger GDP growth.
The ECB also now tends to emphasise core inflation more than it did under the previous President, but the inflation target is set in terms of the headline rate, and most research shows that to be strongly influenced in the shorter term by commodity prices and the exchange rate. Consequently, the recent fall in oil prices and the appreciation of the euro ( up 8% against the US dollar in the past three months), unless reversed, would normally prompt a further downward revision in the the next ECB inflation forecast in September.The June forecast itself reduced the inflation projection over the next three years by a cumulative 0.6 percentage points, largely reflecting weaker oil prices. Another point worth noting is that credit growth, although stronger than last year, is still anaemic, a factor referred to in the latest ECB minutes.
So what is the market expecting? It would be difficult for the ECB to claim that there are upside risks to inflation but having stated that the risks of deflation have effectively disappeared the Bank may tweak it guidance on asset purchases, which currently states that ‘we stand ready to increase our asset purchase programme in terms of size and/or duration‘. In reality, the scope to increase QE is anyway constrained, as in a number of cases the Bank is at or close to the 33% issuer limit in government bonds. However, the market does not expect an immediate halt to buying by the end of the year, rather a gradual tapering of the monthly total into 2018.
Yet the ECB would find itself in a difficult situation if inflation fell further over the next few months, as it has argued that QE has been instrumental in boosting the price level and that ‘ a very substantial degree of monetary accommodation is still needed for underlying inflation pressures to build up and support headline inflation in the medium term’. The Fed also faces low inflation but can point to its dual mandate ( stable prices and full employment ) to justify tightening, but the ECB does not have that luxury.