Last December the euro briefly traded below 1.04 against the US dollar and few forecasters envisaged a short term recovery, with a number calling for parity against the greenback. In the event the euro has appreciated, with the past two months seeing a notable rally, taking the single currency above $1.12. The consensus has also shifted, with many abandoning bearish calls in favour of further euro appreciation. Speculative positioning has also tilted decisively, with the market now running modestly long the euro/dollar for the first time in over three years.
One factor driving the euro is the economic data, which has generally surprised to the upside, in turn prompting analysts to revise up their GDP projections. As a consequence many now expect the ECB to shift its policy stance, moving initially towards less dovish rhetoric before changing its forward guidance, although a rise in the deposit rate is not fully priced in until the latter part of 2018. In contrast, the US data has tended to surprise to the downside and the market, which was effectively pricing in two further rate hikes in the US this year, is now much less confident about the second ( although a rise this month is still seen as highly likely)
In its Staff forecast in March the ECB projected inflation at 1.7% in 2019, predicated on a euro/dollar rate of $1.07 over the forecast horizon. The exchange rate is seen to have a significant impact on prices in the EA and if the next forecast ( due later this week) used a rate of $1.12 that , all else equal, may push the inflation forecast for 2019 down by as much as 0.2 percentage points.
Moreover, the March forecast assumed an oil price around $56 over the next few years, and that now looks too high, given developments of late , with Brent crude prices falling to around $50 on market concerns that the OPEC cuts have not been sufficient to make an appreciable dent in the unusually high level of crude stocks. Again, a lower oil price projection, say around $50, would shave up to another 0.2 percentage points off the inflation projection.
Of course the Staff may revise up some other components ( wage growth for example) to avoid having to lower the inflation outlook, and one sometimes wonders if the forecast drives ECB policy or the other way round, but on the face of it the combination of weaker oil and a stronger currency should have a disinflationary impact.