New Irish mortgage lending for house purchase peaked in 2006 at some €28bn, with over 110k mortgages drawn down, and subsequently fell, collapsing completely from 2008 onwards before bottoming out in 2011 with a value figure of just €2.1bn and a volume total of 11k. The ending of mortgage tax relief in 2012 prompted borrowers to bring forward their draw down which helped to boost lending to €2.5bn in that year but the corollary was a weaker figure in 2013, with the value of lending slipping to €2.4bn alongside a fall in volume from the 14k seen the previous year. Lending has picked up substantially this year, however, and the annual total may well rise to around €3bn, with perhaps over 16k new mortgages for house purchase likely to be drawn down.
The past year has certainly seen some positive changes in terms of both the supply of credit and the demand for mortgages. The number of active lenders fell away sharply in the downturn and is still low but credit standards are back to more normal levels , having tightened considerably at the onset of the recession ( credit standards always tend to be pro-cyclical). On the demand side affordability is back to the benign levels seen in the latter part of the 1990’s and employment is rising which has helped to support household incomes, the main driver of mortgage demand. Price expectations ,too, play a part, and few now doubt that the market has bottomed, at least in the main cities, particularly the capital.
The latest new lending figures from the Irish Banking Federation (IBF) show that 4337 mortgages for house purchase were drawn down in the second quarter, an increase of 52% on the same period last year and compared with 3126 in the first quarter. Buy-to-let mortgages account for less than 5% of the total compared with a quarter at the peak of the boom, although the rental yield is now higher than the mortgage rate which was certainly not the case in 2006 and 2007. First -time buyers now dominate, accounting for well over half the total (from a third at the peak) with the balance made up by those moving house, a segment that has taken a much more stable proportion of lending.
The average new mortgage for house purchase is also rising, as one might expect given the rise in house prices nationally, increasing by over 5% at an annual rate in the second quarter, to just over €178k. As a result the total value of mortgage lending for house purchase in q2 was €773m or 60% up on the previous year, following a figure of €539m in the first quarter.
These annual growth figures are clearly very impressive but when put in context the housing market is still far from what might be considered liquid and healthy. Total transactions amounted to over 8700 in the second quarter, for example, according to the Property Price Register , so the mortgage data implies that less than half of transactions are being funded by bank credit, which remains unusually low. In addition, mortgage repayments are still outpacing new lending so net mortgage lending is still contracting; net lending fell by a total of €1.5bn in the first six months of 2014, which implies repayments of €2.8bn given that new lending (as per the IBF data) was €1.3bn.
What level of mortgage lending would take place in a healthy market?. One approach is to assume that a 3%-4% annual turnover in housing transactions is normal, implying transactions of 60k-80k (there are approximately 2m houses in Ireland) compared with around 30k last year, Again, perhaps 80%-85% might be normally funded via a mortgage so that gives a mortgage volume figure in the region of say 50k-60k per annum. The 2014 outturn may well be around 16k so we are still a long way away from an equilibrium, although lending is clearly now finally moving in the right direction.