Consumer spending in Ireland accounts for around half of GDP and in 2013 probably amounted to some €83bn or €11bn below the peak year of 2008. Consumption is largely driven by real household income which has fallen sharply in recent years, but household wealth also plays a role and so the housing collapse has also had an impact, with households deleveraging in order to rebuild net wealth. Annual consumption appears to have fallen again in 2013 but picked up through the year after a very weak first quarter and the latest retail sales data showed a strong end to the year in term of High street spending, with sales excluding cars rising by 2.8% in volume terms over November and December. The consensus view sees that upturn translate into a rise in real consumption this year (the Budget is predicated on a 1.8% increase), largely driven by a recovery in household income, and the latest data from the Central Bank is also potentially supportive in terms of the trend in household wealth although deleveraging is still very much in evidence, adding downside risks.
Household wealth comprises financial assets and housing, with the latter dominating in Ireland. Net wealth (i.e. the value of assets minus debt) peaked at well over €700bn in 2008 and then plunged to less than €450bn largely as a result of the collapse in house prices. Indeed, the net financial worth of the household sector bottomed in late 2009 and has been on a rising trend since, increasing to €148bn in the third quarter of 2013 ( on a 4-quarter moving average, the measure preferred by the Central bank), which is a new high. Around a half of gross financial wealth is in the form of equity reserves in pension and insurance funds and the recovery in stock markets has had a big influence as the amount held by households in cash and bank deposits has not greatly changed of late. The pick up in house prices is also significant as it has boosted housing wealth with the result that total net wealth is now some €50bn higher than it was a year ago, rising to €490bn in the third quarter.
The improvement in the net worth position also reflects a significant decline in household debt. That peaked in the final quarter of 2008 at €204bn (total liabilities were and still are around €10bn higher but the Central bank concentrates on loans owed to financial institutions) and has fallen by €35bn since then, to €169bn in the third quarter of 2013. Deleveraging on that scale has also resulted in a fall in the debt burden (debt relative to disposable income) but the decline in the latter has been slower reflecting falls in the denominator, with the latest reading at 196% of income from a peak of 214%, recorded as recently as the second quarter of 2011. The debt ratio is still very high by international standards and although the rise in net wealth is a positive for the economy and will have some influence on the future pace of deleveraging no one really knows when the latter will come to an end and that adds to the degrees of uncertainty surrounding any consumption forecast.